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Dyspnea, Cough, and Facial Swelling—What’s the Cause

A 70-year-old smoker presents with a four-week history of dyspnea, cough, and facial swelling that is exacerbated by bending forward. A physical examination reveals venous collaterals on the chest wall, and imaging is ordered. What is the most likely cause?

A. Right-sided heart failure
B. Superior vena cava obstruction
C. Pericardial effusion
D. Lymphatic obstruction
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